POSTFIX(1)                                                          POSTFIX(1)

       postfix - Postfix control program

       postfix [-Dv] [-c config_dir] command

       This  command  is  reserved  for the superuser. To submit mail, use the
       Postfix sendmail(1) command.

       The postfix(1) command controls the operation of the Postfix mail  sys-
       tem:  start  or stop the master(8) daemon, do a health check, and other

       By default, the postfix(1) command sets up a  standardized  environment
       and runs the postfix-script shell script to do the actual work.

       However,  when  support  for  multiple Postfix instances is configured,
       postfix(1) executes the command specified with the multi_instance_wrap-
       per configuration parameter.  This command will execute the command for
       each applicable Postfix instance.

       The following commands are implemented:

       check  Warn about bad directory/file ownership or permissions, and cre-
              ate missing directories.

       start  Start  the Postfix mail system. This also runs the configuration
              check described above.

              Like start, but keep the master(8) daemon running in  the  fore-
              ground,  and enable master(8) "init" mode when running as PID 1.
              This command requires that multi-instance  support  is  disabled
              (i.e.  the  multi_instance_directories  parameter  value must be

              When running Postfix inside a container, see MAILLOG_README  for
              logging  to  stdout.  Postfix  logs  to syslog by default, which
              requires a) running a syslogd process inside the  container,  or
              b) mounting the container host's /dev/log socket inside the con-
              tainer (example: "docker run -v /dev/log:/dev/log ..."), and  c)
              a  distinct Postfix "syslog_name" prefix that identifies logging
              from the Postfix instance.

       stop   Stop the Postfix mail system in an orderly fashion. If possible,
              running  processes  are  allowed  to terminate at their earliest

              Note: in order to refresh the Postfix mail system after  a  con-
              figuration  change,  do  not  use the start and stop commands in
              succession. Use the reload command instead.

       abort  Stop the Postfix mail system  abruptly.  Running  processes  are
              signaled to stop immediately.

       flush  Force delivery: attempt to deliver every message in the deferred
              mail queue. Normally, attempts to deliver delayed mail happen at
              regular  intervals,  the  interval  doubling  after  each failed

              Warning: flushing undeliverable mail frequently will  result  in
              poor delivery performance of all other mail.

       reload Re-read  configuration  files.  Running  processes  terminate at
              their earliest convenience.

       status Indicate if the Postfix mail system is currently running.

       set-permissions [name=value ...]
              Set the ownership and permissions of Postfix related  files  and
              directories, as specified in the postfix-files file.

              Specify  name=value to override and update specific con-
              figuration parameters. Use this,  for  example,  to  change  the
              mail_owner  or  setgid_group  setting  for  an already installed
              Postfix system.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later.  With  Post-
              fix   2.0   and   earlier,  use  "$config_directory/post-install

              Rotate the logfile specified with $maillog_file, by appending  a
              time-stamp   suffix   that  is  formatted  according  to  $mail-
              log_file_rotate_suffix, and by compressing  the  file  with  the
              command  specified with $maillog_file_compressor.  This will not
              rotate /dev/* files.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.4 and later.

       tls subcommand
              Enable opportunistic TLS in the Postfix SMTP client  or  server,
              and  manage  Postfix  SMTP  server TLS private keys and certifi-
              cates.  See postfix-tls(1) for documentation.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.1 and later.

       upgrade-configuration [name=value ...]
              Update the and  files  with  information  that
              Postfix  needs  in order to run: add or update services, and add
              or update configuration parameter settings.

              Specify name=value to override and update specific  con-
              figuration parameters.

              This  feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later.  With Post-
              fix  2.0  and   earlier,   use   "$config_directory/post-install

       The following options are implemented:

       -c config_dir
              Read  the and configuration files in the named
              directory instead of the default configuration  directory.   Use
              this  to  distinguish  between multiple Postfix instances on the
              same host.

              With Postfix 2.6 and later, this option  forces  the  postfix(1)
              command to operate on the specified Postfix instance only.  This
              behavior is inherited by  postfix(1)  commands  that  run  as  a
              descendant of the current process.

       -D (with postfix start only)
              Run each Postfix daemon under control of a debugger as specified
              via the debugger_command configuration parameter.

       -v     Enable verbose  logging  for  debugging  purposes.  Multiple  -v
              options make the software increasingly verbose.

       The  postfix(1)  command  exports  the  following environment variables
       before executing the postfix-script file:

              This is set when the -c command-line option is present.

              With Postfix 2.6 and later, this environment variable forces the
              postfix(1)  command to operate on the specified Postfix instance
              only.  This behavior is inherited by  postfix(1)  commands  that
              run as a descendant of the current process.

              This is set when the -v command-line option is present.

              This is set when the -D command-line option is present.

       When  the  internal  logging service is enabled (by setting a non-empty
       maillog_file parameter value) the postfix(1) command  exports  settings
       that  are used by child processes before they have processed or
       command-line settings.

              The name of the public postlog service endpoint.

              The hostname to prepend to internal logging.

       The following configuration parameters are exported as environ-
       ment variables with the same names:

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  default  location of the Postfix and con-
              figuration files.

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       html_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location  of Postfix HTML files that describe how to build,
              configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that owns the  Postfix  queue  and  most
              Postfix daemon processes.

       mailq_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Sendmail  compatibility feature that specifies where the Postfix
              mailq(1) command is installed.

       manpage_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Where the Postfix manual pages are installed.

       newaliases_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies  the  location  of
              the newaliases(1) command.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       readme_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of Postfix README files that describe how to build,
              configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature.

       sendmail_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location  of
              the Postfix sendmail(1) command.

       setgid_group (postdrop)
              The   group   ownership  of  set-gid  Postfix  commands  and  of
              group-writable Postfix directories.

       Available in Postfix version 2.5 and later:

       data_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix-writable  data  files  (for  example:
              caches, pseudo-random numbers).

       Available in Postfix version 3.0 and later:

       compatibility_level (0)
              A  safety net that causes Postfix to run with backwards-compati-
              ble default settings after an upgrade to a  newer  Postfix  ver-

       meta_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location of non-executable files that are shared among mul-
              tiple Postfix instances, such as postfix-files,,
              and  the  multi-instance  template  files and mas-

       shlib_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of Postfix dynamically-linked  libraries  (libpost-
              fix-*.so),  and the default location of Postfix database plugins
              (postfix-*.so) that have  a  relative  pathname  in  the  dynam-

       Available in Postfix version 3.1 and later:

       openssl_path (openssl)
              The location of the OpenSSL command line program openssl(1).

       Other configuration parameters:

       import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  list  of  environment  variables  that a privileged Postfix
              process will  import  from  a  non-Postfix  parent  process,  or
              name=value environment overrides.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A  prefix  that  is  prepended  to  the  process  name in syslog
              records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

       Available in Postfix version 2.6 and later:

       multi_instance_directories (empty)
              An optional list of non-default Postfix  configuration  directo-
              ries;  these  directories belong to additional Postfix instances
              that share the Postfix executable files and  documentation  with
              the  default  Postfix  instance,  and that are started, stopped,
              etc., together with the default Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_wrapper (empty)
              The pathname of a multi-instance manager command that the  post-
              fix(1)   command  invokes  when  the  multi_instance_directories
              parameter value is non-empty.

       multi_instance_group (empty)
              The optional instance group name of this Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_name (empty)
              The optional instance name of this Postfix instance.

       multi_instance_enable (no)
              Allow this Postfix instance to be started, stopped, etc.,  by  a
              multi-instance manager.

       Available in Postfix version 3.4 and later:

       maillog_file (empty)
              The  name  of an optional logfile that is written by the Postfix
              postlogd(8) service.

       maillog_file_compressor (gzip)
              The program to run after rotating  $maillog_file  with  "postfix

       maillog_file_prefixes (/var, /dev/stdout)
              A list of allowed prefixes for a maillog_file value.

       maillog_file_rotate_suffix (%Y%m%d-%H%M%S)
              The format of the suffix to append to $maillog_file while rotat-
              ing the file with "postfix logrotate".

       postlog_service_name (postlog)
              The name of the postlogd(8) service entry in

       Prior to Postfix version 2.6, all of the following files were in  $con-
       fig_directory.  Some files are now in $daemon_directory or $meta_direc-
       tory so that they can be shared among multiple instances that  run  the
       same Postfix version.

       Use  the command "postconf config_directory" or "postconf daemon_direc-
       tory" to expand the names into their actual values.

       $config_directory/, Postfix configuration parameters
       $config_directory/, Postfix daemon processes
       $daemon_directory/postfix-script, administrative commands
       $daemon_directory/post-install, post-installation configuration
       $meta_directory/, plug-in database clients
       $meta_directory/postfix-files, file/directory permissions

       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postcat(1), examine Postfix queue file
       postconf(1), Postfix configuration utility
       postdrop(1), Postfix mail posting utility
       postfix(1), Postfix control program
       postfix-tls(1), Postfix TLS management
       postkick(1), trigger Postfix daemon
       postlock(1), Postfix-compatible locking
       postlog(1), Postfix-compatible logging
       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
       postmulti(1), Postfix multi-instance manager
       postqueue(1), Postfix mail queue control
       postsuper(1), Postfix housekeeping
       mailq(1), Sendmail compatibility interface
       newaliases(1), Sendmail compatibility interface
       sendmail(1), Sendmail compatibility interface

       Postfix configuration:
       bounce(5), Postfix bounce message templates
       master(5), Postfix file syntax
       postconf(5), Postfix file syntax
       postfix-wrapper(5), Postfix multi-instance API

       Table-driven mechanisms:
       access(5), Postfix SMTP access control table
       aliases(5), Postfix alias database
       canonical(5), Postfix input address rewriting
       generic(5), Postfix output address rewriting
       header_checks(5), body_checks(5), Postfix content inspection
       relocated(5), Users that have moved
       transport(5), Postfix routing table
       virtual(5), Postfix virtual aliasing

       Table lookup mechanisms:
       cidr_table(5), Associate CIDR pattern with value
       ldap_table(5), Postfix LDAP client
       lmdb_table(5), Postfix LMDB database driver
       memcache_table(5), Postfix memcache client
       mysql_table(5), Postfix MYSQL client
       nisplus_table(5), Postfix NIS+ client
       pcre_table(5), Associate PCRE pattern with value
       pgsql_table(5), Postfix PostgreSQL client
       regexp_table(5), Associate POSIX regexp pattern with value
       socketmap_table(5), Postfix socketmap client
       sqlite_table(5), Postfix SQLite database driver
       tcp_table(5), Postfix client-server table lookup

       Daemon processes:
       anvil(8), Postfix connection/rate limiting
       bounce(8), defer(8), trace(8), Delivery status reports
       cleanup(8), canonicalize and enqueue message
       discard(8), Postfix discard delivery agent
       dnsblog(8), DNS allow/denylist logger
       error(8), Postfix error delivery agent
       flush(8), Postfix fast ETRN service
       local(8), Postfix local delivery agent
       master(8), Postfix master daemon
       oqmgr(8), old Postfix queue manager
       pickup(8), Postfix local mail pickup
       pipe(8), deliver mail to non-Postfix command
       postlogd(8), Postfix internal logging service
       postscreen(8), Postfix zombie blocker
       proxymap(8), Postfix lookup table proxy server
       qmgr(8), Postfix queue manager
       qmqpd(8), Postfix QMQP server
       scache(8), Postfix connection cache manager
       showq(8), list Postfix mail queue
       smtp(8), lmtp(8), Postfix SMTP+LMTP client
       smtpd(8), Postfix SMTP server
       spawn(8), run non-Postfix server
       tlsmgr(8), Postfix TLS cache and randomness manager
       tlsproxy(8), Postfix TLS proxy server
       trivial-rewrite(8), Postfix address rewriting
       verify(8), Postfix address verification
       virtual(8), Postfix virtual delivery agent

       syslogd(8), system logging

       OVERVIEW, overview of Postfix commands and processes
       BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README, Postfix basic configuration
       ADDRESS_REWRITING_README, Postfix address rewriting
       SMTPD_ACCESS_README, SMTP relay/access control
       CONTENT_INSPECTION_README, Postfix content inspection
       QSHAPE_README, Postfix queue analysis

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA

       TLS support by:
       Lutz Jaenicke
       Brandenburg University of Technology
       Cottbus, Germany

       Victor Duchovni
       Morgan Stanley

       SASL support originally by:
       Till Franke
       SuSE Rhein/Main AG
       65760 Eschborn, Germany

       LMTP support originally by:
       Philip A. Prindeville
       Mirapoint, Inc.

       Amos Gouaux
       University of Texas at Dallas
       P.O. Box 830688, MC34
       Richardson, TX 75083, USA

       IPv6 support originally by:
       Mark Huizer, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands
       Jun-ichiro 'itojun' Hagino, KAME project, Japan
       The Linux PLD project
       Dean Strik, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands